History: Fiction or Science? Chronology 1

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Environmental change and internal economic and social developments—e.g., peasantization—transformed the population in the second half of the second millennium and the first half of the first millennium B. Perhaps most important, conditions in the river valleys favored farming. If it is regarded as symbolic that the most spectacular achievement of the mid-twentieth century is atomic fission and the nuclear bomb, likewise it would not seem fortuitous that the early Muslim's medical endeavor should have led to a discovery that was quite as revolutionary though possibly more beneficent." "A philosophy of self-centredness, under whatever disguise, would be both incomprehensible and reprehensible to the Muslim mind.

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Egypt: Land of the Pharaohs (Lost Civilizations)

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If you want to increase your power of concentration, you will have to reduce your worldly desires and activities. Art of the period is a reflection of the society, as utilitarian implements with a variety of ornament have been uncovered. Civilizations can be seen as networks of cities that emerge from pre-urban cultures, and are defined by the economic, political, military, diplomatic, social, and cultural interactions among them.

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Foundations of the Nineteenth Century: (V.1 ) (1913)

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The ruling class, normally concentrated in the cities, has control over much of the surplus and exercises its will through the actions of a government or bureaucracy. Right wing populism - Ideologically, Trump allied himself with the populist wing of the Republican Party that has elements of racism, xenophobia, sexism, chauvinism and anti-pluralistic tendencies antithetical to a modern diverse and open society. Both of them are true expansion packs and they add a lot to the game, cumulatively speaking, so I'd say they're not as outrageously overpriced as some of the game's other DLC.

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The American Negro: What He Was, What He Is and What He May

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Pythagoras (569 to 475 BC) was the Greek philosopher and mathematician. Thought as force needs a special kind of subtle matter in its working. Bonobos are the only non-human African great ape exception to infanticide, and are also the only great ape species that does not sexually coerce females, humans included.� The reason seems to be the social organization that arose from a plentiful food supply that allowed for larger groups in which females and males actively reduced male violence.� Many behaviors within and between bonobo bands are unknown with chimps.� A male bonobo will remain with his mother for her entire life, and male bonobos do not vie for dominance.� Instead, bonobos have a sexuality that no other animal on Earth has remotely approached.� The y settle nearly everything with sex. �Female on female is common, particularly when bands meet, but anything goes in bonobo society, with the sole exception of mothers and sons, as the aversion to inbreeding is rooted very deeply in animals and is also responsible for the human incest taboo.� Bonobo societies are peaceful and seem to live by the slogan, �Make love, not war.�� But it started with their economy, when their primary and dominant competitor moved away.� In recent studies, the only bonobo sexual coercive acts observed are females abusing males, which is also rare. [525] � A likely influence on ending infanticide is that female bonobos, like humans, conceal their ovulation, so males are not cued to compete to be the father.� Also, since virtually all bonobos have sex all the time, there is no way for bonobos to determine paternity.

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Ferguson, Niall's Civilization: The West and the Rest

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I was also regularly dismayed by orthodox scientific and academic works that dealt with the human brain, consciousness, human nature, UFOs, FE technology, and the like, in which the authors accepted declassified government documents at face value (as in not wondering what else remained classified, for starters) or looked no further than 19th-century investigations. [29] � Direct personal experience is far more valuable than all of the experimental evidence that can be amassed; there is no substitute for it, as that is where knowledge comes from.� Armchair scientists who accept the skeptics' word for it have taken the easy way out and rely on highly unreliable "investigators" to tell them about the nature of reality.� They consequently do not have informed opinions, or perhaps more accurately, they have disinformed opinions.� The holy w arriors� efforts aside, the scientific data is impressive regarding what has been called �psi� and other terms, which clearly demonstrated abilities of consciousness that are still denied and neglected by mainstream science. [30] � Brian O'Leary advocated scientific testing of paranormal phenomena, but he was a voice in the wilderness.

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History of Afircan Civilization

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It is argued that the inhabitants of these villages were Negro and very probably Soninke, and that the basic elements of their culture had developed without major influences from outside the area. The nexus of Eur ope, Asia, and Africa has been the site of great migrations, conflicts, extinctions, innovations, and the like, all the way to today, and began when Asian mammals probably drove half of European mammals to extinction 34 mya.� It continued to the invasion of Africa by Asian mammals 18 mya and to the travels of Miocene apes in and around Africa as they migrated outward and then back home, between 16.5 mya and nine mya .� The �friction� between collisions of animal assemblages and human cultures, as well as the geographic and climatic variation in that region, not only gave rise to humanity, but human civilization also first appeared in that region and is at the heart of the world�s attention and woes today. � That is where the energy is. � Advancing and retreating ice sheets made Europe a difficult place for the human line to inhabit, and they sporadically appeared and disappeared for more than one million years, all the way until this current interglacial period called the Holocene .� Homo erectus began appearing in southern Europe about 1.5 mya. �There were three basic routes to Europe.� The easiest would have been largely overland, crossing today�s Turkey to arrive in the region around today�s Greece.� The other two routes crossed the Mediterranean Sea, one via Sicily to today�s Italy, and the other took the Strait of Gibraltar to today�s Spain. [526] � Archeological sites show early humans using all three routes. �In the mountains of Spain is the earliest evidence of the human line in Europe and dates as far back as 1.2 mya .� The rem ains in that cave also show the first signs of human cannibalism .� Those cannibals are also thought to be human-line members, evolved from Homo erectus and called Homo antecessor .� Today, anthro pologists are confident that Homo antecessor gave rise to Homo heidelbergensis, at least as confident as any early human ancestral relationships are, but as can be seen with Stringer's graphic above, another school of thought has Homo antecessor being a dead end.� Chimps have also engaged in cannibalism, so that may be another ancient primate behavior.� With recent advances in human DNA studies, the human genome provides evidence that all early human societies engaged in cannibalism, possibly as a ritual of eating rivals vanquished by violence, maybe as food, and there is a great deal of archeological evidence. [527] Homo heidelbergensis fossils and artifacts are prevalent in Africa, Europe, and West Asia, and they may have lived from 1.3 mya to 200 kya, for another long-lived species.� They had about the same stature as modern humans, but were more robust and their brains were about the same size as those of modern humans .� They m ay have been the first humans to bury their dead. �In this human-line narrative, species existences evidently overlap, when one ancestral species coexisted with its probable descendants for hundreds of thousands of years.� From the perspective of evolutionary theory, there is nothing unusual about it.� Fro m a review of how speciation is thought to happen, it is apparent that genetically isolated populations can adapt to new environments and eventually become new species, while ancestral and sibling species can continue thriving, probably in the �homeland,� just as parents rarely die upon producing offspring, and the offspring eventually leave home.� The tree of life on Earth has many branches, and although all branches will eventually end, new twigs from the same branch can grow while the original branch continues growing.� Stephen Jay Gould suggested that a transition to a new species averages about 15-to-20 thousand years. [528] � That is under the �natural� effects of geological and climatic dynamics, and animals trying to survive.� But the human line has changed all that.� Animals make nests, burrows, and other structures that enhance their ability to survive, but humans began making radically different environments called �artificial� today, and the first artificial environments were campfires surrounded by Homo erecti or close relatives trying to stay safe, warm, and well-fed.� Those humans not only used fire to help conquer the world, they also introduced �artificial� variables into human evolution, and the first may well have been the transition to ground-dwelling and the changes that derived from eating cooked food.� Humans introduced radical variables to evolution never seen before on Earth.

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Western Civilizations: Their History & Their Culture

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It was following this initial flourishing of civilization, in a period known as the Chou dynasty (1122–249 B. So while the richest 10 percent of the population obtains 46.1 percent of the national income, the poorest 10 percent gets only 1.4 percent. However, they had never arrested or expelled him, since he was there before my eyes. A civilization is a society or culture group normally defined as a multifaceted society characterize by the practice of farming and settlement in towns and cities.

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A Source Book for Medieval History

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Monks Mound, at Cahokia in Illinois, is by volume the fifth largest pyramidal monument in the world. I wonder if there would have been anything in me if I had tried? From Sumer onward, the priesthood conferred deific status or divine sanction to elites, and that unholy union still exists today in many places, including England .� As oth er professions arose, they also groveled before political-economic power, and historians have repeatedly prostituted themselves.� They did it from the beginnings of their profession, do it to this very day, and those historians selling their souls early on became known as court historians.� They concocted history that portrayed the elite path to dominance as a valiant quest, when the reality was almost always the opposite.� That issue led to the cynical but true observation that history is written by the winners.

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Culture and Modern Life

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The late 20th century and early 21t century have seen vast changes, leaving very few inhabitants of this planet untouched. His complexion was uniformly pale, his mouth was red, but not engaging. In general reforms were to diminish the role of aristocracy, eliminate financial differences and mix the society. Canada was the first country to state that a so-called antiracist conference that contained a major component of extreme racism-in this case, anti-Semitism-should be boycotted.

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Indigenous Capital and Imperial Expansion: Bombay, Surat and

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The first definite appearance was in 312 BC, when Hieronymus of Cardia, a Seleucid officer, mentioned the Nabateans in a battle report. He told the social reformers of his time not to criticize, not to destroy, but to bring about transformation imperceptibly. Carly noted that, Although we are often unaware of our indebtedness to this other civilization, its gifts are very much a part of our heritage. Civilization, as I am using it here, is what’s left after you strip away culture.

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